Hwang, H., & Takane, Y. (2014). Generalized structured component analysis: A component-based approach to structural equation modeling. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.


(2015 Winner of the Sugiyama Meiko Award (Publication Award) of the Behaviormetric Society)


Relevant Articles

Cho, G., Sarstedt, M., & Hwang, H. (2022). A comparative evaluation of factor- and component-based structural equation modeling approaches under (in)correct construct representations. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 75, 220-251.

​Hwang, H., Cho, G., Jung, K., Falk, C., Flake, J., Jin, M. J., & Lee, S. H. (2021). An approach to structural equation modeling with both factors and components: Integrated generalized structured component analysis. Psychological Methods, 26(3), 273–294

Cho, G., Hwang, H., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2020). Cutoff criteria for overall model fit indexes in generalized structured component analysis. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 8,189–202.


Cho, G., Jung, K., & Hwang, H. (2019). Out-of-bag prediction error: A cross validation index for generalized structured component analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 54, 505-513.


Hwang, H., Malhotra, N. K., Kim, Y., Tomiuk, M. A., & Hong, S. (2010). A comparative study on parameter recovery of three approaches to structural equation modeling. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 699-712.

Hwang, H., Ho, R. M., & Lee, J. (2010). Generalized structured component analysis with latent interactions. Psychometrika, 75, 228-242.

Hwang, H., & Takane, Y. (2010). Nonlinear generalized structured component analysis. Behaviormetrika, 37, 1-14.


Hwang, H. (2009). Regularized generalized structured component analysis. Psychometrika, 74, 514-530.


Hwang, H., Takane, Y., & Malhotra, N. (2007). Multilevel generalized structured component analysis. Behaviormetrika, 34, 95-109.


Hwang, H., & Takane, Y. (2004). Generalized structured component analysis. Psychometrika, 69, 81-99.